About 25 percent of the world’s population is hypertensive causing more than 75 Lac deaths across the world every year. Half of these patients are not even aware that they are hypertensive as it remains practically silent. It is usually detected during routine medical checkups in many individuals.
BP is defined as the force of blood against arterial wall as it circulates through our body. Normal blood pressure is a systolic pressure of 120 mmHg or less and a diastolic pressure of 80 mmHg or less. Systolic pressure between 120-139 mmHg and diastolic pressure between 80-89 mmHg is borderline whereas systolic blood pressure of 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or more is frank hypertension.
In majority of the patients no reason for high blood pressure is found known as essential hypertension. Multiple factors responsible for high BP are stress, sedentary lifestyles, faulty food habits, lack of exercise etc. A small group of patients with high blood pressure are having secondary hypertension, in which the high blood pressure is the result of another condition or illness such as kidney, thyroid, pituitary or adrenal glands disorder, pregnancy, obesity, sleep disorders and adverse effects of medicines. Alcohol, cigarette, Diabetes, birth control pills and Vit D deficiency play an important role in raising BP. If you are diagnosed with the high blood pressure, it is important to see your doctor on a regular basis, and take your medication on time to avoid any further health problem.
Complications of high BP are heart failure, ischemic heart disease, and hypertensive cardiomyopathy. It can damage the blood vessels and filters in the kidneys. Hypertension can lead to stroke, either by contributing in atherosclerosis and clots, or by weakening the blood vessel wall and rupture leading to brain Hemorrhage. It can damage the blood vessels in the retina and thus affecting vision.
Control of high BP requires lifestyle modification including weight loss, no smoking eating a healthy diet, less salt in diet, regular aerobic exercise, limiting alcohol consumption and drug therapy.
Drugs for high BP control include Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Angiotensin receptor blockers, diuretics, beta-blockers and calcium channel blockers.
In short, regular blood pressure checks are essential which will establish it to be mild, moderate or severe levels of hypertension. Step starting from diet control and exercise to anti-hypertensive pills could help control it. Limiting salt intake could reduce elevated blood pressure by as much as 10 mmHg. So with or without high BP, salt intake should not be more than 1500 mg per day. Aerobic exercise for 30-40 minutes most days in a week were best for lowering the blood pressure. A healthy diet, including fruits vegetables, and whole grains is ideal for controlling high BP. There is no addiction or dependence of any antihypertensive drugs. However, side effects from anti-hypertensive medications are very rare and usually not serious but, uncontrolled BP would cause serious organ damage.
Therefore controlling BP can prevent organ damage & help you live longer